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The Road to 5G – Current Experience and Future Developments

15 minute read
The fifth generation of wireless communication networks (5G) is the result of a revolutionary development from the previous generations second, third and fourth (2G, 3G and 4G), It includes up to 20 gigabytes per second (Gbps), upload speeds of up to 10 gigabytes per second, and a latency time of only 1 fraction of a […]
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The fifth generation of wireless communication networks (5G) is the result of a revolutionary development from the previous generations second, third and fourth (2G, 3G and 4G), It includes up to 20 gigabytes per second (Gbps), upload speeds of up to 10 gigabytes per second, and a latency time of only 1 fraction of a second. This state-of-the-art technology will provide download speeds 200 times higher than the 4G LTE (and 100 times faster than the previous generation). As well as a tenth of the delay time included in fourth-generation technology. The fifth-generation technology has been developed for three use cases, They are: Advanced mobile broadband network (eMBB), heavy machine-to-machine communication (mMTC) and high-speed high-reliability communications (URLLC).

The next generation of wireless networks offers more potential to spur innovation and meet the growing demands of the digital economy. Where stakeholders in the sector expressed that the fifth generation is not limited to being a new generation for advanced communications, but a new approach for converged communication systems that use available resources more effectively in their networks, including hardware, software and spectrum, To enable new and better services and applications for businesses and users.

Fifth generation technology is a step forward in the world of mobile technology, Since mobile networks can be considered as extensions of fixed networks, It would increase broadband capabilities across all parts of digital economies and societies. For those who see broadband networks as a general-purpose technology (technologies that have a long-term transformative impact on a large sector of the economy), The new capabilities provided by these networks can be used to leverage growth and productivity gains across a range of different economic scenarios and sectors. In this sense, Fifth generation technology can help to:

  • Support the introduction of new applications and services at higher speeds with lower latency.
  • Improve company efficiency and innovation by increasing broadband download speeds and using more efficient cloud solutions based on low latency.
  • enable greater use of IoT services and applications (including mission-critical services) that may rely on low-latency broadband and are highly reliable, Accordingly:
    • Improve health outcomes through the use of IoT devices that enable customized services (such as remote surgery) in a timely manner.
    • Improve industrial productivity through the use of remote robots and futuristic versatile touch technology.
  • Promote new forms of competition in fixed and mobile broadband markets.

The extent to which the fifth generation technology will be used ultimately depends on the speed at which the fifth generation technology will spread, And how quickly companies and users adopt it alike. In addition, The extent to which this benefit will depend on the evolution of business models, the development of standards and the ability of regulatory and institutional frameworks to adapt to these developments. Finally, The potential luxury gains of 5G technology will be linked to the integration of different technologies, and the degree of interoperability of devices and applications.

This report examines the future of telecommunications markets with the advent of 5G technology. With regard to investment and good practices in spectrum management, competition and coverage, In addition to meeting the growing demands of digital transformation processes. The focus of the report is on describing some case studies from a number of countries. which approaches the issue from a dual perspective: National 5G technology strategies and technological experiments. Finally, The report addresses a range of questions about the development of 5G infrastructure in areas such as investment.

The report also examines the possibility that 5G technology could represent a paradigm shift. It is the first standard conceived with the Internet of Things in mind, Capacity requirements in different IoT applications vary. At the same time, Sectors are likely to lead the industry, In addition to enhanced mobile broadband applications, the development of the fifth generation is in its initial stages. Thus, Due to the diversity of categories of use cases, The infrastructure of the fifth generation network must be flexible in order to meet the various requirements, One way to bring this flexibility is to use grid chipping technology (Ericsson, 2017[1]). which is a form of network virtualization that allows the provision of many logical service networks, referred to as "slides", Across the same basic physical infrastructure, This would allow the "chipset" to offer different network characteristics. Despite the availability of this technology in current technologies, However, it is not likely to be a key feature of the next generation of wireless networks, 5G core networks make network segmentation more efficient.

The report states that many stakeholders have noted that 5G technology is the first generation of wireless networks whose use cases are driving technological developments. New experiments and partnerships are organized to develop usage scenarios and enhance business models in 5G technology. In fact, New partnerships are emerging, Not only between industry sectors and vertical and horizontal actors, But also between countries; in Europe, A clear example of 5G (i.e., highways) technology corridors involving the collaboration of many European countries to prepare for connected vehicles and with fully automated vehicles in the future and potentially using 5G technology.

The report also addresses two major technological developments that have become mature for 5G technology, They are: Beam shaping and using multiple input arrays and large multiple outputs (MIMO). It should be noted that multiple inputs and multiple outputs represent a wireless system that uses two or more transceivers to transmit and receive data simultaneously. The large multiple inputs and multiple outputs use a base station (i.e. transmitters and receivers) array with dozens of individual antennas, They move in a slightly different direction from the current practice of using large cell towers (i.e., micro cells), Furthermore, Multiple inputs and large multi-outputs use a large number of service antennas that are managed in a coordinated and adaptive manner. As for the beam formation, It is the traffic light system for cellular base stations that determines the most efficient way to deliver data to a particular user, It also reduces interference for users close to the process (IEEE, 2017 [2]). The beam formation system can help large multiple-input and multi-output arrays to make spectrum use more efficient (IEEE, 2017 [2]).

In addition, Thanks to modern technologies, High frequency bands can also be used, Such as millimeter wave bands (mmWave) in wireless services for mobile phones. These advances in 5G technology suggest that instead of hundreds of thousands of large wireless towers, There will be a significant increase in cellular sites or "small cells" worldwide.

While the process of standardizing industry procedures for 5G technology is ongoing, One clear trend is that 5G networks will need smaller cell locations. to complement traditional large cell towers, that is, although 5G may be deployed in low- and medium-frequency bands for coverage reasons, However, it will also be deployed using mmWave millimeter bands for power reasons that require small cells. These small cells would complement the overall network coverage with capacity. As a result, This will require bringing smaller cells closer to connected devices through a process known as network condensation. Such cells need to be connected to backlinks, This underscores the need for increased investment in next-generation network deployment and backlink access. Therefore, A new policy approach aimed at improving investment conditions is needed to support 5G technology.

Spectrum is a necessary input for wireless communications, That's why it's so important for 5G technology. Hence, The spectrum requirements of 5G technology can be divided into three main frequency bands: Low frequency bands (24 GHz). It is worth noting, noted that the globally harmonized spectrum framework is critical for 5G technology, It will enable economies of scale and facilitate cross-border coordination.

It should be noted that there are regulatory challenges that have emerged with the advent of 5G technology, The main concerns of investors relate to the regulation of energy density (or electromagnetic boundaries at a given location). Other regulatory challenges also involve the implications of using "network condensation" and "network segmentation" technology. As for infrastructure sharing agreements between operators, They became popular in order to reduce distribution and installation costs. It is worth noting that the nature of infrastructure sharing agreements may also change, They may be associated with deeper forms of network and spectrum sharing (i.e., in the active layer of networks compared to passive infrastructure sharing agreements only). This would create new competition and regulatory challenges, Telecom regulators may also have to adapt to this development.

While business and technology cases continue to evolve rapidly, It is likely that regulatory issues for traditional communications will become more relevant and relevant with the successful deployment of this new generation of wireless technologies. With the emergence of mobile networks as an additional extension of fixed networks, Due to network condensation and performance/capacity improvement, These key organizational matters will include: simplification of traffic rights (to deploy huge numbers of small cells and the backlink that connects cells), Effective spectrum management, deployment, access to basic and back-end facilities and new forms of infrastructure sharing.

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